Out-Of-The-Box Approaches To Executive Education

By Russ Banham

Chief Executive

School days, school daze. Many CEOs are rethinking their expenditures on traditional executive development programs. It’s not that an MBA from a marquee institution has lost its value, it’s just that quantifying the impact on business outcomes is elusive. Sure, employees come away from the experience with enhanced knowledge, but applying it to business needs doesn’t happen overnight, given entrenched management structures and the demands of today’s fast-changing global business environment.

No surprise, then, that many companies are taking a fresh look. Led by CEOs who are firm believers in the value of continuous education, such organizations are sponsoring a wide range of internal programs customized to specific business needs and goals. Like more traditional Exec Ed, the programs are intended to fill skills gaps, but they’re also designed to produce more tangible results. By developing more perceptive and engaged employees, the programs improve productivity, reduce turnover rates, burnish a reputation as an employee-centric business and offer the opportunity to explore new business concepts inspired by employees’ exposure to new ideas and thinking.

These innovative approaches are many and diverse and can help companies inspire employees, address skill gaps and introduce new perspectives on an ongoing basis:

Peer networks.

Executives develop relationships and share benchmarks, best practices and advice in facilitated groups that meet in person several times a year and virtually as needed. (Chief Executive offers The Chief Executive Network and Senior Executive Network. Members are placed in industry-specific, revenue compatible, non-competing groups facilitated by trained experts to share innovative ideas, solve specific problems and uncover best practices. More information here.)

Leadership training seminars.

In most urban centers, top experts come to town to host seminars that get people out of their seats to role-play mock business circumstances, like what to do when a competitor brings out a disruptive new product.

Cross-mentorship programs. 

These harness the learnings of older employees who mentor younger ones, with a quid pro quo of getting some needed technology refreshers in return.

Temporary assignments abroad.

Employees absorb the nuances of a geographic market’s unique culture, laws, regulations and business practices by spending time at a company office or facility in a foreign country.

Cross-discipline job opportunities.

By taking on diverse positions across an enterprise for a short period of time, employees really learn the ropes, helping them become future leaders.

Open-door gatherings. 

People from up and down the corporate rungs come together as equals to share their experiences and ideas. Game-changing innovations are not confined to senior leadership ranks. The goal is to inspire all employees to bring their most brilliant musings to work.

“Education comes in many different ways,” says Therese Tucker, founder and CEO of BlackLine, a Los Angeles-based publicly traded provider of financial and accounting automation software. “We’re doing the traditional things like supporting the continuing education credits of the many CPAs we have here on staff but are also trying out other ideas—with great success.”

So is Russell Johnston, CEO of QBE North America, part of Australia’s QBE Insurance Group, one of the world’s top 20 general insurance companies. “We have a philosophy here of putting the employee at the center of all we do, even ahead of our customers and shareholders,” Johnston says. “We put a lot of effort into internal programs focused on leadership. Not only am I very passionate about leadership development, I’m a certified instructor on the subject.”

Other CEOs riding herd on novel education approaches include Gaurav Dhillon, co-founder and CEO of SnapLogic, a provider of data integration technology solutions; and Tom Wheelwright, who heads up WealthAbility, a Tempe, Arizona-based provider of wealth attainment strategies. Both are fans of conventional MBA programs and non–degree granting courses within business schools, but they also advocate for nontraditional continuous learning opportunities.

Cross-Generational Collaboration

At SnapLogic, CEO Gaurav Dhillon is a big believer in the value of cross-mentorship, where older and younger employees advise one another on their respective areas of expertise. These days, there’s plenty for Millennials and Generation Z to teach.

“Generationally, younger people are more adept in their use of technology and multi-tasking; it just goes with the territory,” says Dhillon. “They can text and listen to you at the same time. Older people in the workforce, on the other hand, have patience and prioritization capabilities—judgment that can only arrive after years of experience, including bad experiences. There’s great value in cross-mentorship programs in which each generation’s unique abilities come together.”

Wheelwright at WealthAbility also values employee education programs focused on ways that encourage more enjoyable and effective collaborations, as opposed to filling skills gaps on an employee-by-employee basis. “I’m a big believer in seminars where everyone participates as a member of a team,” he says.

Each year, the firm sponsors a two-and-one-half-day leadership seminar focused on personal development. “I remember a new hire here who dreaded having to go to the seminar, thinking it would be another lecture with flip charts,” says Wheelwright. “She was in horror at the thought of having to spend eight hours stuck in a room. However, once it was over, she said she couldn’t wait for tomorrow.”

Wheelwright leads the annual seminar, which involves role playing and other collaborative exercises drawn from Robert Kiyosaki, founder of the Rich Dad Co., a private financial education organization. Kiyosaki is the author of the Rich Dad Poor Dad series of personal finance books, which have sold more than 27 million copies worldwide. In 1985, he acquired Erhard Seminars Training and rebranded the controversial company as a business education firm focused on leadership. He and Wheelwright have collaborated on a book and are close friends.

“Robert’s seminars are not the usual ‘rah rah’ Tony Robbins stuff, not that there is anything wrong with that,” says Wheelwright. “Instead, his seminars are more transformational than instructional, more geared to getting people to engage with others in creative expression. We use his role-playing techniques to get employees to open up and freely express their wildest business ideas. Research indicates that people who participate in such exercises retain up to 90 percent of the experience after two weeks. This compares to 50 percent when engaging in discussions and 20 percent in instructional, lecture-type classes.”

While he encourages the workforce to pursue outside professional education opportunities and the attainment of an MBA, not all academic institutions provide worthwhile programs, Wheelwright says. “Since we’re in the wealth education and accounting business, we employ several CPAs who have to take 80 hours of continuing education classes every two years, which we fund in full,” he notes. “But nobody enjoys sitting in a room taking copious notes as some ‘talking-head’ instructor lectures on some esoteric subject, with a 50-slide PowerPoint presentation of bullet points in the background.”

Wheelwright also advocates the “personal replenishment” benefits afforded by sabbaticals. The company provides a paid, one-month sabbatical to employees, which can be added to their vacation time to “really unwind,” he adds, calling sabbaticals a “crucial way to achieve better work-life balance. Employees who remain here while their colleagues are on a sabbatical are told not to bother them unless the issue is critical. We don’t want them to feel stress while they’re away. We want them to rest their minds, absorb new experiences and come back with fresh perspectives.”

Finding Stellar Seminars

Johnston at QBE North America is a proponent of seminar training—if they’re the right fit. Prior to becoming the insurer’s CEO in May 2016, he was president of the $6 billion U.S. casualty division of the large international insurer AIG, which he previously served as COO.

During his time with AIG, he took a series of leadership seminars taught by Professors Jack Weber and Carol Weber (they’re married) at the University of Virginia’s Darden Graduate School of Business. “It was the most impactful course I’ve taken in my entire career,” he says.

Both the The Wall Street Journal and Financial Times rated the leadership seminars number one in terms of teaching quality and impact among all other university-based leadership development programs. Not only did the seminars give Johnston keen insights into people performance management, they inspired him to become a seminar instructor. “I’ve got a certificate hiding around here somewhere,” he says.

Johnston prefers seminars that take employees out of their comfort zones rather than those designed purely to increase technical competencies. “I have nothing against executive MBA programs, but they tend to dwell on business-as-usual instruction as opposed to looking outside one’s technical competency to grasp what is really going on in the world, in terms of innovative technologies, processes and new business structures,” he explains. “My philosophy of executive development is to hire technically competent people and then get them thinking about change management. I’m a passionate believer that to become an effective leader in today’s disruptive market environment, you need to develop people equipped to handle change and innovate.”

At QBE, this process begins the day a new hire attends the onboarding orientation. “The minute they come through the front door, we put them through a pretty rigorous leadership profile, in which we assess their leadership competency and cultural fit,” he explains. “This tells us where they need to improve and how we should go about it, through seminars for the most part.”

To spread institutional knowledge and stimulate the development of novel ideas, Johnston hosts a monthly morning coffee klatch with a random selection of employees from across the business, everyone from senior executives to administrative assistants. He asks the same question at every gathering—“What can we do to make the company better?”

“Since I’ve arrived here, I’d say half the things we’ve implemented literally came from the ideas that percolated at those morning sessions,” Johnston says.

Ultimately, it’s that idea-generating power that justifies devoting time and resources to executive education. Continuous learning can be a powerful tool in any CEO’s arsenal, particularly when grappling with the single biggest challenge facing leaders today—the need to reinvent their businesses on an ongoing basis.

Russ Banham is a Pulitzer-nominated financial journalist and a contributing writer to Chief Executive.

Three M&A Alternatives For Accelerating Your Digital Transformation

By Russ Banham

Chief Executive

Apprehensive over inferior mobile and online platforms, inefficient processes and frightful visions of becoming irrelevant, both tech and non-tech organizations are looking to leapfrog the innovation curve by acquiring proficiency in A.I., robotics, predictive analytics, machine learning, blockchain, natural language processing, image recognition software and the Internet of Things (IoT).

“You can look across literally every industry out there today and see both old-guard companies and new age businesses acquiring tech startups, from auto companies buying autonomous vehicle software providers to retailers buying e-commerce portals,” says Jason Flegel, partner and leader of Deloitte’s technology, media and telecom M&A practice. “Unequivocally, this is a major M&A trend with real lasting power.”

A recent survey conducted by Chief Executive with Tata Consultancy Services found 72 percent of CEO respondents considering either a merger, acquisition or divestiture in the next three years. Top drivers include new products or services, new markets and new business models. Since 2010, more than 21,800 tech startup exits—or points at which investors like VCs sell their stakes in a firm—have been tracked worldwide, representing a total deal value of about $1.2 trillion.

“Large technology companies have acquired smaller tech companies for years, but what is really eye-opening is the extraordinary number of non-tech companies closing deals,” says Marc Suidan, leader of PwC’s technology, media and telecom deals practice.

The result? Sky-high valuations, of course. Elvir Causevic, managing director and co-head of global investment bank Houlihan Lokey’s Tech+IPadvisory practice, says some of the leading tech startups that come to the firm to represent their sale “are seeing very high valuations in the market relative to historical multiples and expect the same for their own deals, especially if they have the best-in-class technology.”

He’s not kidding. 3-D printer maker Desktop Metal, for instance, took 1.79 years from founding to reach $1 billion, whereas autonomous driving startup Zoox took two and one-half years. Electronic scooter maker Bird jumped from a $400 million valuation to $1.2 billion in under three months.

Further clouding the picture is the tightening debt market. Cheap debt and ample private equity fueled the run in M&A. With rates rising and recent instability in the equity markets, the window for funding is narrowing and not every midsize buyer will be able to buy what it wants.

Luckily, there are other ways to round out your transformations. “Assuming the board and senior management identify what they need and why, they can generally get it in a joint venture or partnership, a licensing deal, or by poaching technology skill sets,” says Robert Hartwig, a professor of finance at the University of South Carolina’s Darla Moore School of Business. “M&A is not the only path toward digital and data transformation.”

Here are three examples of such alternatives, which serve as a prudent counterbalance to risky M&A transactions.

A License to License

Like many midsized companies, W.L. Gore & Associates must compete against larger business entities to acquire innovative startups. The 60-year-old global materials science company is circumventing this obstacle by licensing the patent for a groundbreaking technology.

Gore is primarily known for its GORE-TEX waterproof, breathable fabric membrane, but it also creates medical devices and products for the aerospace, pharmaceutical and mobile electronics industries. While it pursues traditional acquisitions, joint ventures and venture capital investments as part of its external growth strategy, the company also engages in novel patent licensing deals.

“Startups in the medical device space are very high-priced right now relative to historical multiples,” says Paul Fischer, who leads Gore’s corporate development organization. “We’re challenged in acquiring these organizations by larger publicly traded companies that can use their equity to purchase these companies. We need to deploy other creative strategies.”

By licensing an inventor’s patent on a breakthrough technology, Gore avoids the typical pitfalls of an acquisition, chief among them the cultural integration issues. The license also can be exploited to serve different needs. “We can use it to make things, but we can also use it to prevent others from making things,” Fischer says.

With regard to this defensive use, he explains that by owning the patent for a period of time, Gore can block a competitor from moving forward with a new product using the particular technology in its market space, or thwart the aims of a potential market entrant planning to do the same thing. “Patent licensing has become a large piece of our overall growth strategy,” says Fischer.

The drawbacks are relatively minor. While most patents can be licensed on a 20-year basis, some may require specific use restrictions. “Most times you can license it for whatever you want to use it for, but not always,” says Fischer. Another issue is whether the license provides exclusive use or non-exclusive use of the patent. In the latter case, other companies can also license the patent, limiting its effectiveness as a market barrier. “Universities that develop technologies that accept government research funding can’t provide exclusive licenses,” Fischer notes.

Still, there is more for CEOs to gain than lose from considering patent licensing as a means toward digital and data transformation. While a patent creates an effective market barrier, no company should license a patent it doesn’t expect to actually use.

“Thomas Jefferson opined that inventors of a patent should be incentivized for the betterment of society,” Fischer says. “If you keep it in the drawer, you’re squandering its value.”

Invest, Learn and Buy (Maybe)

Long disparaged as technology laggards, insurance companies are transforming operations from top to bottom using a variety of innovative digital and data technologies. In cases where these tools are not built in-house, they’re obtained from the more than 1,500 insurance technology startups that have sprouted like mushrooms over the past 10 years.

These nimble InsurTech startups seek to either compete against traditional insurers, sell to them, or be acquired by them. For insurers that opt to buy a startup, one way to lessen the risk of a failed deal is to invest in the company first, by way of forging a close partnership. This is the strategy of American Family Insurance (AmFam), a large, 90-year-old mutual insurance company providing property, casualty, health and life insurance products.

In 2014, AmFam launched a separate venture capital fund called American Family Ventures to scout promising investments in early-stage startups. Armed initially with a $50 million war chest, the fund eyeballs InsurTech startups from the seed capital phase through the Series B round, the point where investors take bigger stakes right before the company starts to scale.

“Our approach is to invest in these companies to build a strong relationship, give them some work and, if the time is right, at some point to consider an acquisition,” says Dan Reed, managing director of American Family Ventures. “If we get to this stage, it’s just a much easier conversation to have since we already know them well, and vice versa.”

While most of the fund’s investments don’t culminate in an acquisition, they nonetheless serve the purpose of providing access to innovative technologies that can be used in underwriting, claims management or other parts of the insurance value chain. A case in point is the fund’s investment in Hover, a startup with a machine learning application that homeowners use to assess damage to their property.

Once a homeowner clicks on the Hover app, they’re asked to take pictures of the damage. The tool then stitches together these images into a highly accurate 3-D model that includes accurate measurements for claims purposes. “We invested $4 million in the company, giving us a headstart for our own needs and theirs,” says Reed.

In scrutinizing startups, the fund looks for insurance innovators in product distribution, predictive analytics and the Internet of Things (such as developers of home automation and autonomous vehicle systems). Most investments result in the fund receiving 5 percent to 10 percent of equity in the startup.

Some investments turn into acquisitions. In 2013, the fund invested $5 million in Networked Insights, a startup that ingested social media posts on a massive scale. Using Natural Language Processing, a form of machine learning, the tool provides unique insights into customer experiences for marketing purposes.

“After we made the investment, we became one of their largest customers; I spent time on their board and helped them raise more money,” says Reed. “As they continued to build out their capabilities, they became a more meaningful partner to us.”

AmFam acquired the company last year, which is now part of its new digital transformation division.

Investments have been made in 54 startups since the fund’s launch. “Ten of these companies have been sold to the likes of Google, Amazon and Apple, providing good returns,” says Reed.

As for the remainder of its investments, the returns are measured in enhanced efficiencies and customer-focused innovations. Says Reed, “The ideas we’re getting from these companies are worth more than what we’ve invested.”

Locking Up a Joint Venture

Accuform, a developer and distributor of workplace safety signs, tags and labels, has acquired companies in the past, but when CEO Wayne Johnson wanted to develop a high-tech new product, he opted to take a different path. Accuform already offered lockout/tagout systems that ensure dangerous machines are properly shut off before employees service and maintain the equipment. Johnson’s idea was to create a digital locking system that would provide maintenance teams with real-time data over the Internet about the status of equipment repairs. “Electronic locks have been around for some time now, but nobody had designed one specifically for the safety applications of lockout/tagout,” he says.

He learned this fact by scouring the Internet for evidence of a small startup tech company actually making such locks, thinking of a possible acquisition. None surfaced. Lacking the tech resources to design the product in-house, he spoke with a friend who had recently sold his startup technology business and was looking for another venture to stick his teeth into. “I told him my idea and he was intrigued,” Johnson says. “He understood both safety and technology and happened to know a design group in Taiwan that could develop the Internet-enabled software inside the lock.”

The two men met with representatives of the Taiwanese company. This past summer the three parties inked a joint venture to make the novel electronic lockout-tagout system, which Accuform would brand and market. The Taiwan-based company is a silent partner in the deal. “We put together an MOU (Memo of Understanding) where we’d share in the design and development costs and split the eventual revenues,” explains Johnson.

The partners established a one-year deadline to bring the product to market in summer 2019. The Taiwan-based technology provider is in charge of design and development and will manufacture the product in Taiwan and ship it to Accuform in Brooksville, Florida. The other two partners are in charge of sales and marketing in North America and globally.

The design is now completed, and a prototype is ready for testing. Once the tests conclude, Accuform will reach out to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for regulatory approval, since the agency’s current standards don’t address an electronic lockout-tagout. “The system is designed for user access via an electronic key as opposed to a traditional metal key that goes into a padlock,” Johnson explains. “It works just fine, and we have no qualms. We just need OSHA’s buyoff, which may involve some additional tinkering.”

From Johnson’s perspective, the arrangement is far more palatable than buying a company outright and attempting the messy business of integration. “From a risk standpoint, [acquisitions] are a much bigger bet than simply partnering up,” says Johnson. “A JV is much simpler and less risky.”

Russ Banham is a Pulitzer-nominated financial journalist and best-selling author.

Deep Learning Holds Promise for Much Longer Lives

By Russ Banham

Perspectives

The longest living human on record was Jeanne Calment, a French woman who died in 1997 at the age of 122. That’s a pretty sizable leap from today’s average life expectancy at birth in 2018 — 70 for males and 74 for females on a worldwide basis. But it’s peanuts compared to what may lie ahead.

Today, the possibility exists for people to achieve what scientists like Alex Zhavoronkov call “extreme longevity,” an age where people who pop off at 100 are mourned for dying too young.

We can thank (or blame) artificial intelligence for such long lifespans. As Zhavoronkov writes in “The Ageless Generation,” his new best-selling book, “In the not-too-distant future, medical science will possess the technology to slow and even reverse the aging process itself.”

Into the Deep

Zhavoronkov, who is the founder and CEO of Insilico Medicine, an AI and bioinformatics company focused exclusively on aging and age-related diseases, is keen to share the ways people can use emerging technologies to squeeze out quite a few extra years.

“By leveraging deep neural networks, we’re able to discover novel molecules targeting specific diseases and develop them into compounds for life-extending drugs,” he said. All of this, “at a vastly faster rate than is achievable in the current clinical trials process.”

A deep neural network is a form of deep learning, a subset of AI, that employs a multilayered system of artificial neurons to glean insights from massive amounts of data. The difference between artificial neurons and the ones we carry around in our brains is the skyrocketing speed by which the former acquire knowledge.

The data in this context relates to the aging process and the ability of different molecules to prevent or halt disease. By training the deep neural network to predict a particular person’s biological age based on genetic, environmental, and other relevant data, the specific reasons why the individual will likely live to be 80 years of age, but not much longer, are discerned. Once understood, the same tools are used to ferret out “correctives,” Zhavoronkov said.

These correctives are unique molecular compounds that offer a powerful opportunity to inhibit the manifestation of terminal diseases like cancer, Parkinson’s, or Alzheimer’s. By nipping such diseases in the bud, lifespans are extended. “Ideally, we want to prevent disease before it manifests,” Zhavoronkov said. “Several cancers have been cured in animals genetically similar to humans, substantially increasing the lifespans of worms, fruit flies, and mice. The problem is these compounds don’t translate well to humans.”

Deep neural networks narrow these odds. “We use massive repositories of what are called the `omics’ data, for genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics data,” he explained. “These biological molecules translate the structure, function, and dynamics of an organism, what we refer to as `gene expression’— a snapshot of all the genes.”

By training the deep neural networks to recognize the underlying signaling pathways in a disease, Zhavoronkov said, researchers can quickly identify the relevant biomarkers. From there, they can generate new molecular compounds with the properties that combat disease.

To get a sense of what he means by a “massive” repository of omics data, the total number of small molecules alone is estimated to be between 10⁶⁰ and 10²⁰⁰. For humans alone to study and test this many molecules as potential drug compounds would take an eternity — the equivalent of looking for a needle in a giant haystack. But AI, in this case deep neural learning, is really good at finding the needles.

“By mining the biological data, we hope to progress pretty quickly toward developing a chemical compound to hit the target and prevent the disease from manifesting,” he said. “Regenerative medicine is in a far more advanced state than most people realize. The pieces are coming together.”

Scratching the Surface

Although Zhavoronkov declined to estimate how long someone born today can expect to live, he’s confident we’ve not yet reached our biological lifespan limit.

2018 study published in the Science journal suggests that a fixed limit to the human lifespan has yet to be ascertained. The study indicates that people at age 100 have the same 50 percent chance of dying within a year as people between the ages of 105 and 109; they also share the opportunity to live another 1.5 years. In other words, the risk of death at extreme ages seems to plateau, giving hope that we’ve yet to reach an expiration date.

Some scientists like Aubrey De Grey, chief science officer at the SENS Research Foundation, project that human lifespans will extend into the hundreds and possibly in excess of 1,000 years. The thinking is that by the time someone born today makes it to 100 years, the state of AI and medical science will have advanced to the point where the person can conceivably live to the age of 150. Fifty years later, the same progression occurs, lifting the individual’s chances of making it to 200. And so on.

“I don’t like to speculate on how long we can hope to live, but I will say that human beings have a way of setting seemingly impossible goals like landing on the moon and then pulling it off,” Zhavoronkov said. “In that regard, I would aspire to live young as long as possible.”

A Dry Well?

Living to a ripe old age is not without complications. For one thing, the world could become as crowded as a Los Angeles highway at rush hour. Long-term care is another dilemma. In the past, it was common for children to take care of their aging parents. However, that was when the children were in their 50s and 60s and their parents were in their 80s and 90s — not 120-plus.

Another sobering consideration is how society will support masses of people living only half their lifespan by the time they retire. An analysis by the International Monetary Fund indicated that if people live a mere three years longer than expected, pension-related costs in both advanced and emerging economics could increase by 50 percent.

“Science is allowing us to live longer, but not necessarily with an improved quality of life,” said Robert Hartwig, a professor of finance at the University of South Carolina’s Darla Moore School of Business.

In Hartwig’s class on health and life insurance, he describes longevity risk as one of the greatest global challenges yet to be addressed in meaningful ways. “If you look at the age people generally retire today through the lens of their savings, pension, and Social Security income, and consider the possibility they may live decades and decades longer, you realize the well will soon be dry,” he said. “There are simply not enough economic resources available on the planet to allocate to hordes of people living to 120 or 150.”

Hartwig concludes the class by asking his Gen Z students when they expect to retire; the majority respond around the age of 55. “Working much longer than one anticipates is needed to offset a disaster in the making,” Hartwig warned.

But is it fair to expect a construction worker, truck driver, or other laborer to work well in their 80s and 90s? “Society needs to create job opportunities for individuals who historically would have transitioned out of the workplace and into retirement,” said Hartwig. “This could entail retirement at current expectations, followed by a period of reeducation and a less toilsome occupation.”

To incentivize people to work beyond their retirement years, Zhavoronkov suggested changing the age of eligibility to receive pensions and unpenalized access to 401k savings and Social Security benefits. “Although people will object,” he said, “in time, the new age of retirement will become accepted as the norm.”

In other words, the time to prepare for a very long life is now.

Virtual House Calls

By Russ Banham

Leader’s Edge

Time is of the essence in the agricultural industry, given the short window of opportunity to harvest fruits and vegetables in their peak condition. When workers feel under the weather from a cold or stomach virus, they typically have to drive a long distance to a medical clinic or hospital emergency room for treatment. Time is spent waiting in the facility. An entire day’s work can be squandered.

United Agricultural Benefits Trust (known as UnitedAg) is familiar with the productivity pains caused by an employee’s lost time from work. The associated healthcare plan, composed of more than 700 agricultural employer groups with 42,000 members spread across California’s vast agricultural industry, sought a way for workers to receive more expeditious care at the same or higher quality and at lower employer cost.

Telemedicine (also called telehealth) was the solution.

“Our members didn’t have good access to healthcare in the rural environments where they worked,” says Christopher McDonald, UnitedAg’s chief innovation officer. “They also tend to carpool to work. This meant someone feeling ill might not have a car to drive to a clinic. So they end up taking a full day off for a medical condition that could easily be addressed with a simple prescription.”

UnitedAg signed a contract with Teladoc, one of the top telemedicine providers in the fast-growing virtual healthcare space. Telemedicine is on-demand healthcare provided remotely by a doctor, nurse practitioner, registered nurse or other medical specialist. Access is within minutes. Employees with a bad headache, bladder infection or more than 50 other low-acuity (read: non-life-threatening) illnesses log onto an application and communicate their concerns to a medical specialist, who prescribes treatment.

Depending on the telemedicine provider, the back-and-forth online consultation may involve video (like Skype), a phone conversation with uploaded photos, a question-and-answer written exchange—or all of the above.

Not only is this fast-track process more humane for the injured or ill employee, it may sharply reduce the cost of employer-provided healthcare.

“By deferring a visit to an emergency room or a walk-in clinic, hundreds of dollars are shaved off each time,” says Peter McClennen, Teladoc’s president.

Add up those deferred visits, and companies with a large employee population can save a bundle. Other employer benefits include reduced absenteeism and a related uptick in productivity.

“Telemedicine also makes employees feel their employer values them, which increases their engagement levels, improving job retention,” says Aamir Rehman, M.D. and head of clinical services for the United States at employee benefits provider Mercer.

So it’s small wonder that virtual healthcare is taking off. According to Mercer, 71% of employers with 500 or more employees offered telemedicine services in 2017, up sharply from the 59% that offered the services in 2016. “It’s just exploding,” Rehman says.

Spiraling out of Control

Today’s healthcare system is in disarray, with competing agendas in Congress and no clear consensus on an optimal solution. “The volume of research papers today on healthcare is outsized—literally hundreds of papers published per day,” McClennen says.

Meanwhile, the average total health benefit expense per employee keeps creeping up for employers—from 2.4% of revenues in 2016 to 2.6% in 2017. Deductibles in traditional preferred provider organization plans also continue to rise, reaching nearly $1,000 on average in 2017 for employers with 500 or more employees and nearly $2,000 for companies with 10 to 499 employees.

Other examples of rising healthcare costs include:

  • Americans pay $858 on average for their prescriptions, compared to $400 per person across 19 other industrialized nations.
  • Doctor-dispensed drugs cost 60% to 300% more than medicines distributed at retail pharmacies.
  • Average annual salaries for nearly all physician specialties increased between 11% and 21% in 2016.
  • The cost of emergency room visits can reach well into the thousands of dollars.
  • Many ER visits are unnecessary, the medical condition easily treated with over-the-counter medications or a visit to a less expensive walk-in clinic.
  • Nearly half (46%) of physicians mandated by law to digitize patient records have spent more than $100,000 each to implement an electronic health record system.

These various expenses trickle down to affect the overall cost of healthcare for employers and everybody else. Telemedicine offers a way to trim the excess fat, while providing much-valued access and convenience to employees.

Tomorrow’s Healthcare Today

Think of telemedicine as a walk-in clinic without the walking. By all accounts, it appears to be the least expensive option to treat many low-acuity ailments such as bronchitis, athlete’s foot, deer tick bites, pink eye, laryngitis, and sinus, yeast and ear infections. That’s because employees don’t have to make a time-consuming trip to the ER, a walk-in clinic or a doctor’s office to treat such conditions.

“A key driver of telemedicine is to prevent overuse of the ER,” says Tim Smith, a principal at Deloitte, where he is the national leader for the consulting firm’s healthcare information technology practice. “If someone needs a prescription for penicillin because they have a rash, the person does not need to sit for three hours in an emergency room to be handed a piece of paper. With telemedicine, a doctor or nurse practitioner can immediately diagnose the rash and route the prescription to a local pharmacy for the person to pick up at lunch or on the way home from work.”

Telemedicine also puts injured or ill employees in the driver’s seat when it comes to their care. “Historically, if I wanted to see my doctor, I had to make an appointment when it was convenient for the doctor,” Rehman says. “With telemedicine, the doctor sees me at my convenience. For employees at work, this is a great alternative. They don’t have to leave work, drive to the care provider, and wait around in a waiting room for who knows how long. The physical barrier to providing care has been removed.”

Many telemedicine providers offer services beyond low-acuity medical conditions, such as providing dermatology and psychological care. Although the companies price their services differently, most charge a specific fee for a consultation with a medical specialist. UnitedAg, for instance, receives electronic data from Teladoc notifying it that one of its employee members consulted with the provider.

“The fee is well under what a regular doctor’s office or clinic charges,” says McDonald. “We also paid a one-time fee to set up the exchange between their system and ours.” He preferred to keep these amounts proprietary, noting they were negotiated with Teladoc.

The big question about telemedicine is whether the quality of care is on par with or better or worse than seeing a physician in person. Rehman seems to lean toward “on par.”

“As a doctor, when a patient comes to me with a sore throat, I examine the person to see if there might be something else going on,” he explains. “This might indicate that a physical visit is superior to a virtual one.

But we’ve surveyed our clients’ employees about this, and the reality is their doctors spend very little time with them in the examination room. It was painful for me as a physician to read these responses.”

He adds, “The reality is that with telemedicine, patients aren’t giving up much, since their doctors tend to give them so little time anyway.”

Telemedicine, in fact, may be a better alternative to walk-in clinics.

“The quality of care in telemedicine outpaces brick-and-mortar clinics because everything is documented,” Rehman says. “If the patient is prescribed a medication, that person’s personal physician and healthcare provider receive this information electronically. Not all walk-in clinics have this capability.”

That’s not good. Rehman provided an example of a patient who receives a prescription from a nurse practitioner at a walk-in clinic that may exceed the dosage the person’s physician would have recommended, given the patient’s other medical conditions and prescriptions.

“With telemedicine, the patient’s personal physician is alerted immediately to the new prescription, whereas this may fall through the cracks at a clinic,” Rehman says. “If there is a problem, it can be quickly discerned and solved.”

Several studies indicate virtual care has its plusses and minuses. A 2016 Rand Corporation study indicated the ease of telemedicine consultations actually resulted in overuse, increasing the use of healthcare. A 2013 study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, comparing telemedicine with face-to-face examinations of patients with sinusitis and urinary tract infections, confirmed the traditional benefits of telemedicine—convenience, avoidance of travel time, and lower costs—but found that telemedicine providers had prescribed antibiotics at a higher rate for sinusitis than did other doctors. And the benefit of antibiotics for sinusitis is unclear.

One can argue this research is four years old—antiquated given today’s blistering pace of technological development. In the interim, video sharing, digital technology and data analytics software have improved markedly, possibly moderating the tendency to overprescribe.

A New Service Line of Business

Telemedicine appears to be a cost-effective and highly valued employee benefit for insurance brokers to present to commercial clients.

“We’re very bullish on this concept of delivering healthcare, as I am personally,” says Deloitte’s Smith. “The technology now exists for patients to have much more interactive conversations with quality caregivers using video and other visual tools. Ten years from now, sitting in a waiting room will be passé.”

Many brokers are already partnering with a telemedicine provider (or several) to offer the product to clients. Aon is a case in point.

“The future of healthcare will be driven by people taking ownership of their well-being, and telemedicine enables this type of behavior,” says Ted Cadmus, senior vice president and a local practice leader in Aon’s health and benefits practice. “Right now too many people go to the ER for things like a sinus infection or a cold, which eats up capital and human resources and does tremendous disservice to the individual…. Telemedicine fits beautifully in our fast-paced, mobile technology world.”

Teladoc’s McClennen agrees that brokers have a lot to gain from presenting telemedicine as an additional employee benefit.

“Undoubtedly, the early movers will have a leading edge, given the trend toward virtual care,” he says. “Eight years ago, a company like ours didn’t exist, but neither did Uber. The world is changing. We’re able to bring all the pieces involved in patient care to employees in an automated, mobile way, making access to care easier and more satisfying.”

While Cadmus believes younger employees are most likely to pursue virtual interactions with care providers, in time every employee will do the same.

“Some older baby boomers who are used to face-to-face doctor visits might still prefer that form of interaction,” he says, “but as they retire, telemedicine and other forms of virtual healthcare, like remote monitoring of patients, will be the primary means for treating diverse medical conditions.”

By remote monitoring, Cadmus is referring to digital technologies that collect medical data from individuals remotely to interpret and monitor their heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar and other personal health data. Like telemedicine, this component of virtual healthcare is predicated upon reducing visits and readmissions to an ER, clinic or doctor’s office, improving patient quality of life while containing costs across the continuum of care.

These savings can be substantial. Mercer’s study indicates a typical telemedicine consultation costs less than $50, whereas the average office visit costs about $125. And a 2017 study by the online journal Value in Health suggests telemedicine consultations at the University of California Davis saved patients nearly nine years of travel time, five million miles and $3 million in costs.

Another study by Accenture found 78% of consumers are interested in receiving virtual health services. A study by Deloitte came to a similar conclusion, finding 74% would use telemedicine services if they were available at work. Meanwhile, 70% of the respondents said they were “comfortable” with consulting about their medical issue with a medical specialist via text, email or video.

Employers are not deaf to this growing interest. About 90% of large employers said they would offer telemedicine as part of their employee health plans in 2017, according to a 2016 National Business Group on Health survey. Altogether, the virtual healthcare market is expected to reach $3.5 billion in revenues by 2020.

“Healthcare is fast becoming one of the most automated industries in the world, making care easier to access and less expensive to acquire,” says McClennen.

All this makes telemedicine an enticing opportunity for brokers. Clients can obtain the aforementioned benefits—increased employee engagement, higher workforce productivity, improved care quality and lower healthcare use—at a much lower cost.

“Depending on the health plan provided by the employer, telemedicine may be a free add-on,” Cadmus says.

Aon has brokered deals for multiple commercial clients involving telemedicine providers Teladoc and American Well. “Which provider we choose depends on the client’s healthcare plan,” says Cadmus. “American Well may be right for one client, whereas another telemedicine provider may be right for a different client. We’re not locked in to any one of them. We play the role of third-party expert for our clients, identifying the solution that’s best for their employee population.”

For this service, Aon receives a commission from the provider on the dollars of business placed, although the firm also has charged fees, depending on the arrangement.

“This isn’t about money anyway,” Cadmus maintains. “The motivating force for us is to clearly demonstrate (to clients) that we’re thinking ahead toward their best interests—always in front of the next technological curve. Right now telemedicine fits this bill.”

Banham is a Pulitzer Prize-nominated author and insurance journalist.

Critical audit matters coming into focus

By Russ Banham

Journal of Accountancy

As auditors prepare for a new auditing standard requiring the disclosure of critical audit matters (CAMs) in their reports, they are traveling in uncharted territory and contemplating new information that they will be providing to investors.

The new auditing standard AS 3101, The Auditor’s Report on an Audit of Financial Statements When the Auditor Expresses an Unqualified Opinion, adopted by the PCAOB in 2017, is predicated on enhancing the relevance and usefulness of the auditor’s report. The first phase of implementation affects PCAOB audits of companies with fiscal years ending on or after Dec. 15, 2017, and includes disclosing auditor tenure and other changes to the form and content of the auditor’s report.

The second phase of implementation requires CAMs to be disclosed in the auditor’s report beginning with fiscal years ending on or after June 30, 2019, for audits of large accelerated filers, and for all other applicable companies for fiscal years ending on or after Dec. 15, 2020. The phased implementation date gives audit firms time to develop processes around determining which items they will disclose as CAMs, which are matters that:

  • Have been communicated to the audit committee;
  • Are related to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements; and
  • Involved especially challenging, subjective, or complex auditor judgment.

At present, audit firms are developing processes to ensure all their engagement partners have a consistent method to identify CAMs.

“As with all changes in our audit methodology, we will distribute implementation guidance and tools for engagement teams to implement the new standard,” said Dave Sullivan, CPA, national managing partner for quality and professional practice at Deloitte & Touche LLP. “We also plan to design and implement controls to monitor the adoption of the CAM disclosures and assure that engagement teams have considered all the requirements of the new standard while applying it to their unique client situation.”

OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

The standard is intended to provide investors with more comprehensive information for investment decisions and is an opportunity for auditors to provide more information of value during the audit. AS 3101 requires auditors to identify a CAM, describe the principal considerations that led to its selection as such, describe how the CAM was addressed in the audit, and refer to the relevant financial statement accounts or disclosures in making these determinations. While CAMs may be matters that were traditionally discussed with audit committees, they were not discussed in an auditor’s report.

Sullivan provided an example of a CAM that might not have been disclosed in past auditor reports. “Let’s say a company with a lot of goodwill on its books is struggling,” he said. “It’s going through the process of predicting future earnings to determine whether or not the goodwill will be impaired. The projections may involve revenue and expense calculations 10 years into the future. This would fit the definition of a critical audit matter, as it is material to the financial statement and could be subjective, complex, and involve auditor judgment.”

The new standard creates several challenges for auditors, audit committees, and preparers of financial statements. First, the PCAOB did not provide an all-inclusive list of what might constitute a CAM. Rather, it is the auditor’s responsibility to make this determination.

“The new framework is broad enough that on one level you might think that ‘goodwill impairment’ is a difficult judgment that would always be a CAM, yet this is not the case,” Sullivan said. “A company could be so profitable that this is not a difficult, complex, or subjective judgment. But if the company the next year has a truly bad year, then goodwill impairment could be a CAM.”

Other possible CAMs include a company’s valuations of hard-to-value securities and investments in nonliquid assets, assuming in both cases that they are material to the balance sheet, Sullivan said. “While the firm anticipates some effort in reporting the CAMs the first year of compliance, we’re very supportive of the new audit model and the goal of giving investors additional information to assist their valuations,” he added. “By separating out such issues for specific attention by investors, they’re better aware that this was a significant estimate by management and one of the most challenging areas in the audit for the auditor.”

A second challenge is how many CAMs an auditor must detail in the report. “Auditors will first look to the definition of a CAM in the auditing standard,” said Cindy Fornelli, executive director of the Center for Audit Quality (CAQ), which is affiliated with the AICPA. “A CAM is any matter arising from the audit of the financial statements that is communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee, that relates to accounts or disclosures material to the financial statements, and that involved especially challenging, subjective, or complex auditor judgment. There is no set number for CAMs for the auditor to communicate.”

Boilerplate language is another area that will represent a challenge for auditors related to this standard. SEC Chairman Jay Clayton issued a warning of sorts when the new standard was issued. He said he would be disappointed if CAMs result in boilerplate communications that snuff out the potential for the new standard to deliver meaningful information toinvestors.

Fornelli shared that auditors may identify the same CAM from one year to the next. “Investors are looking for comparability. So as long as a CAM provides meaningful and accurate information about the audit, it may be OK to use similar language year after year,” she said.

Fornelli also said that investors must appreciate that the new PCAOB standard does not provide the same heightened degree of transparency called for in the United Kingdom’s auditor reporting standard issued in 2013 by the Financial Reporting Council (FRC). The FRC standard requires auditors to describe the most significant risks of material misstatement, disclose the levels of overall and performance materiality, and explain the scope of the audit.

“They’re different standards with different levels of transparency,” Fornelli said. “The other caveat I have for investors is that they should not expect the CAMs to be a proxy for the conversations they must still have with management, the audit committee, and the auditors. This is not the purpose of the standard. Nevertheless, investors will get insights into what the auditor has found to be challenging or complex, which is a big step forward.”

GETTING READY

Given these various challenges, the good news is that the phased effective dates give auditors, audit committees, and preparers time to get ready. While other mandatory features of the new auditing standard, such as disclosure of an auditor’s tenure, were phased in on Dec. 15, 2017, the communication of critical audit matters for large accelerated filers is not required until audits of fiscal years ending on or after June 30, 2019, and for all other companies for audits of fiscal years ending on or after Dec. 15, 2020. “That’s a pretty good lead time,” Sullivan said.

In the meantime, Sullivan said engagement teams are endeavoring to consider all the matters that may be CAMs, to determine which ones will be disclosed as such in the auditor’s report. The firm’s internal implementation guidance and model workpapers are guiding engagement teams through the process of considering relevant items and documenting their conclusions as to whether or not each matter is, in fact, a CAM. “We’ll monitor the application of this guidance and tools as we prepare to implement this portion of the new standard,” he added.

The firm also expects to engage in frequent dialogues with the audit committee about what might constitute a CAM disclosure. “We will then take a dry run, going through the process of identifying the matters that could be CAMs and how they might look in a report,” Sullivan said. “Once that is done, we would bring everyone together to look at the draft and react to the disclosures.”

Sullivan recommended launching this audit planning process early in the fiscal year to discern the challenging, complex, and subjective areas of the audit and discuss them with the relevant parties. “As the year progresses, if circumstances change or something big happens like an acquisition, certain CAMs may drop off the list, but others will remain so there are no surprises two days before the filing,” he said.

Lastly, Sullivan advised that auditors exercise restraint in not trying to do too much, too soon. “You need to present important information, not duplicative information,” he said. “If there is a very good description of the [entity’s] critical estimates in the footnotes, in which the matter’s complexities and subjective judgment is detailed, I don’t think auditors need to repeat the same words [that are] in the body of the 10-K. They’re already voluminous and can be repetitive.”


About the author

Russ Banham is a Pulitzer-nominated business journalist and author who writes frequently about finance and accounting issues.

Beyond Digitization: The Road To Fully Digitalized Manufacturing

By Russ Banham

Forbes

Digitization, digitalization and digital transformation: It’s easy to confuse them, but in fact, they’re very different, each describing a specific facet of a journey toward the development of new revenue-producing business concepts.

Phase one, digitization, is simply the process of transforming operating manuals, handbooks, documents, photographs and other informational resources into a digital format. That process represents a big leap forward in terms of efficiency, making it possible for computers to search, access, store, exchange and integrate all that data.

Most manufacturers have embraced digitization. But too many companies pause at this juncture, wondering which way next to turn next.

Digitalization—phase two—is about processes. It involves using digitized information to optimize production workflows, making them simpler, as well as more efficient and cost effective.

For example, in the manufacturing space, the use of “smart” factory equipment equipped with internet-connected sensors and semiconductors has the potential to change how businesses create their products. Smart machines can do what workers do—and they can do it more efficiently and more accurately, and for a lot less money. In effect, automating these processes—and training people up on how to work with technology—both frees up resources for businesses and makes room for employees to work in tandem with automated processes to produce even better results.

Intelligent systems can also be configured to make a company’s sales and aftermarket processes more efficient, such as by offering insights into asset utilization and maintenance needs, or integrating with other enterprise systems over the internet to more tightly coordinate manufacturing.

In addition, manufacturers can build digital bridges to supply chain partners, consumers, banks and other financial partners, government agencies and other third parties. Supply chains, for example, can be integrated with smart machines to reduce inventory and improve just-in-time manufacturing metrics.

When powerful computing technologies, such as big data analytics, AI and machine learning, are incorporated into this digital nexus, other benefits emerge. These include more transparent communications, more robust collaborations and better-streamlined transactions with partners, not to mention closer relationships with customers.

Once these phases are complete, digital transformation beckons on the horizon. True transformation blends the physical and cyber worlds by aligning manufacturing with internet-enabled data analytics and cognitive computing technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning.

 Leveraging advances with digital transformation

For manufacturers, going beyond digitization and digitalization toward a differentiated digital transformation offers opportunities to use data for expanding on new services and customizing current ones.

For instance, ideas for new services beyond routine repair and maintenance are now closer within reach for businesses, thanks to technologies that can predict when a product might need servicing or replacement well before it actually runs into trouble and breaks down.

The possibilities for product customization also show another example of the extrinsic value of digitization and digitalization. Based on customer data, a manufacturer can produce specialized products that address specific consumer needs and expectations. Whereas customization was inefficient in the past, given the need to stop production runs to gear up machines for different product batches, digitalization allows for a seamless switchover.

In one example of a product workflow, data linked to different customer demands can flow over the internet into a smart machine and might guide it to produce 10,000 traditional products followed by 10 specialized products in which the color or functionalities are different. With those specialized products, manufacturers can access previously underserved markets, increasing both customer satisfaction and revenues.

Yet another new income stream is data monetization—the transformation of manufacturing data into business intelligence that owners can sell to other entities via a subscription-based model. In this context, a manufacturer’s raw data becomes actionable information for other businesses. Using a data-as-a-service model, a truck tire manufacturer could embed sensors in its tires to capture interesting data relating to location, road conditions, speed, distance and other factors. That data might then interest buyers in government and industry.

Fast track ahead

With all three phases of digitalized manufacturing aligned, opportunities to drive growth abound. Manufacturers can seize additional market opportunities by digitalizing their products. A drywall manufacturer, for example, could embed internet-enabled sensors into its product to provide real time safety-related information on temperature and moisture conditions, thus creating a high-value product that it can sell at a premium.

Manufacturers can also price digitalized products variably, based on product usage data they obtain via internet-enabled sensors in a given item. This can lower prices for some consumers, widening both market share and profit margins. Additional revenue can also emerge from applying a manufacturer’s data-driven insights from the manufacture of one product to the manufacture of other products for both existing and new markets.

To realize these new business opportunities, it’s important for data and digital leaders in a digitally transformed organization to align with their sales and marketing teams. The latter can help the former figure out new ways to earn digital revenue. Together, they can explore the company’s range of digital assets through the lens of what they can offer in terms of new income opportunities.

The bottom line? Don’t get confused by the rhetoric when it comes to true digital transformation. Turning data into information is one thing. Turning it into dollars is where it counts.

Russ Banham is a Pulitzer-nominated financial journalist who writes about the intersection of business and technology.

Breaking Bad

By Russ Banham

CFO

Not every day does the CEO of a large public company contentedly smoke marijuana on a podcast (which was also recorded on video), shortly after tweeting he has secured funding to take the business private, blindsiding the board of directors. But this is Elon Musk after all, the Johnny Depp of CEOs.

Musk took Tesla’s institutional investors, shareholders, employees, and customers on quite a hair-raising ride in the second half of 2018. His abrupt tweet about having secured funding to take the company private culminated in a decision by the Securities and Exchange Commission to strip away his chairmanship, fine him and Tesla $20 million each, and mandate the appointment of an independent chairman and two independent board directors to oversee his communications.

The swashbuckling billionaire CEO isn’t the only person running a public company whose bizarre or inappropriate actions have been in the spotlight. Much worse than Musk’s cryptic tweets are accusations of sexual harassment against 273 business, media, and broadcasting executives, according to Temin and Company’s #MeToo Index. Among them are former CEOs Leslie Moonves (CBS) and Steve Wynn (Wynn Resorts).

In this age of 24/7 social media feeds, chief executives and other high-ranking corporate officers — the public faces of their companies —have never been more public. Careless comments, thoughtless actions, and criminal conduct go viral quicker than you can say “resignation,” damaging a company’s reputation and all the businesses and people that rely on the organization for their livelihoods.

“Today, a CEO of a large company gets out of bed and walks across the street and it’s public information,” says Stephen Kasnet, vice chair and lead director of the board at both Granite Point Mortgage Trust and Two Harbors Investment. “It’s so easy for others to know what they’re doing and thinking.”

Some CEOs curry the attention. Nothing wrong with that if their statements and deeds enhance their organization’s long-term financial performance and their social media quips don’t violate securities laws governing material misstatements. The ability to transform a CEO’s fame into corporate and product brand-building is a positive, but there is a downside if their fame is used carelessly or inappropriately. A CEO’s (or any other corporate officer’s) unguarded comments or conduct can unmoor the corporate ship and attract government investigators.

They can also affect how people within the organization treat their subordinates. “The CEO sets the tone and the culture of the organization; if they raise their voices, use profanity, or express certain beliefs, others in the company may infer these behaviors and beliefs are OK,” says Ron Shah, CFO of Hodges-Mace, a provider of employee benefits services.

All of those alarming possibilities are putting institutional investors on guard. “Executive misconduct is a really big focus this proxy season, especially in relation to the #MeToo movement and issues surrounding human capital management,” says Courteney Keatinge, director of environmental, social, and governance research at proxy advisory firm Glass Lewis & Co. “Corporate culture and governance are at the top of the list of investor concerns for boards to supervise.”

Big Mouths

Is executive misbehavior new? To be fair, today’s captains of industry are not much different from their peers of yesteryear. When they’re used to people hanging on their every utterance, some CEOs become imperious know-it-alls. Take Henry Ford, founder and president of Ford Motor. In the 1920s, Ford fumed about a “Jewish conspiracy” in a series of op-eds in his hometown newspaper, the Dearborn Independent. The series’ title said it all: “The International Jew: The World’s Problem.”

Bear in mind that Ford, a brilliant mechanic and businessman, dropped out of high school after ninth grade to work on the family farm. His geopolitical expertise was formative, at best. [Editor’s note: Russ Banham is the author of the book, “The Ford Century.”] Ford’s fulminations ended when Jews boycotted the company’s motorcars. With sales slumping, he retracted his anti-Semitic comments.

In the decades that followed, most CEOs kept their opinions to themselves. If they exhibited certain behaviors like using profanity or drinking to excess during their two-martini lunches, they had enough power over employees’ careers and means of support to keep them quiet. And what happened in the office tended to stay in the office. Apple co-founder and CEO Steve Jobs is remembered for his sharp outbursts nearly as much as his visionary ideas. But as Jobs’ biographer, Walter Isaacson, wrote, many years later, there was the “good Steve” and the “bad Steve.”

Even in the era of the personal computer’s invention, a video recorder wasn’t in the hands of every consumer to document boorish acts, and the Internet wasn’t around to disseminate sordid video clips instantly. No longer is this the case.

Travis Kalanick, the founder and former CEO of Uber, allegedly tolerated a workplace culture that included sexual harassment and discrimination. He also famously berated an Uber driver from the back seat of the driver’s car while the dashboard camera filmed the flareup. The ill-fated trip was the last straw for shareholders, who mounted a successful revolt to remove Kalanick as chief executive.

If YouTube and other video-sharing sites aren’t pushing transparency enough, anonymous employee feedback sites like Glassdoor and Indeed provide an anonymous forum for people to lift the veil on their bosses’ transgressions. A recent exposé published on LinkedIn, for instance, disclosed the conduct of the CEO of a Seattle-based government agency, who “looked women up and down” and pitched temper tantrums, on one occasion kicking an office chair across the room.

Cult of Celebrity

Many companies have made great strides in setting employee conduct policies, and at large multinationals these highly designed, magazine-like documents can run 30 to 40 pages, even guiding workers about what to do in sticky situations. (The Starbucks code of conduct tells baristas how to handle an inappropriate email from a co-worker.) Presumably, these codes of conduct apply to everyone from the CEO on down.

But in many organizations, the rules are elastic when it comes to the head honcho. The problem is that many boards hire CEOs who, by nature, are overconfident individuals. Smart CEOs say dumb things for a variety of reasons, chief among them raging overconfidence. When the weighty crown of celebrity is placed upon such big heads, it creates a compulsion to engage followers on social media with the brilliance of their beliefs on most every subject.

“Combine a smart guy with a huge ego and give them a bully pulpit, and at the end of the day their ego can destroy the organization,” says Kasnet. “The more power someone gets, the more it justifies their ‘genius.’”

Musk apparently was given leeway to do whatever he wanted by his handpicked board because of his wildly creative and obsessive ways. “Most CEOs filmed smoking pot in an interview would be gone the next day,” says Stephen Horowitz, CFO of CareCentrix, a national provider of post-acute home-care services.

But even smoking marijuana on a podcast seems to pale in comparison with the flood of sexual harassment accusations being levied at CEOs and other corporate executives. In those cases, directors can no longer look the other way.

“There cannot be a double standard just because it’s the CEO,” says Peter Cappelli, the George W. Taylor Professor of Management at The Wharton School. “Nobody should be let off the hook for something like sexual harassment. This is what organizational culture is all about. People are watching to see who gets punished and who gets rewarded.”

Others share his perspective. “Boards must have zero tolerance when it comes to issues like sexual harassment,” says Ken Stillwell, CFO of Pega, a provider of customer-engagement software. “I don’t care if the person is the world’s best CEO; you can’t barter away sexual harassment without compromising your integrity. Some things are non-negotiable.”

Boards that fail in this regard have only themselves to blame. “An organization’s reputational risk is a pressing governance challenge, yet few boards give it the attention it deserves,” says Chuck Saia, CEO of Deloitte risk and financial advisory and previously the firm’s chief risk, reputation, and crisis officer. “It’s not hard for the board to sit down with the CEO to document the organization’s shared beliefs. What’s harder is to ensure the CEO lives by them and is held accountable for them.”

Ego Management

To be fair, many CEOs are aware of the impact their words carry. “When I communicate, I always do my best to exercise caution,” says Therese Tucker, founder and CEO of publicly traded BlackLine, a provider of finance and accounting software. She takes this responsibility to heart. “Words are so powerful. How something is phrased can come across in ways that the speaker or writer did not intend.”

Indeed, many corporate officers lead their organizations with humility and empathy. According to psychological studies, humble CEOs are more self-aware of their strengths and limitations and are more open to others’ ideas. Research also indicates that empathetic CEOs more deeply appreciate employees’ need to engage in meaningful work and value their contributions more fully.

So, is there a way to balance the visionary genius of a Jobs, Kalanick, or Elon Musk with their eccentricities? Certainly, directors should not stifle a CEO’s creative impulses, despite their seeming eccentricity. But there are ways to keep these rogue entrepreneurs in check. Sensitivity training — making people more aware of behaviors that may inadvertently cause offense to others — is a good start. At the very least, it might guide CEOs to curate what they say before they say it.

Some CEO behaviors and comments can be partly chalked up to youthful immaturity — the case with such wunderkinds as Bill Gates, Jobs, Marc Zuckerberg, and Musk, all of them business founders and CEOs in their 20s. A young business leader with a big ego is bound to push the limits of respectability. “Some CEOs gain credibility by being the ‘wild one,’ which fits the brand of the company they’re leading,” says Tucker. “That’s OK, as long as the company has a set of values everyone [including the CEO] ascribes to — values like treating all people fairly and giving them the opportunity to bring their authentic selves to work.”

Bosses who fail to follow these behavioral standards may be outed, whatever their age. But Saia says companies can also build their own anonymous feedback sites to ferret out indications of a problem before it blows up into a scandal. He also advises the use of real-time technology tools that take the pulse of a company’s reputation.

“Using machine learning, data analytics, and image-recognition software, you can ferret out and monitor what people are saying about your products, services, and workplace culture to nip things in the bud,” he says.

Unseasoned CEOs can be provided a mentor drawn from the board, such as the lead director or board chair. History suggests there is merit in this concept. Apple’s board forced 30-year-old Jobs to resign in 1985 for being overly demanding and difficult to work with. Eleven years later, the board chair, Edgar Woolard, brought him back to lead the foundering company. “Most important was that Woolard served a vital role as Jobs’ sounding board, confidante, and critic, helping to keep him in line and put Apple back on track,” says Sheila Hooda, CEO of Alpha Advisory Partners and a member of two boards (Virtus Investment Partners and Mutual of Omaha).

The Right Thing

Certainly, the risk of CEO misconduct cannot be tabled by the board when bad behavior goes public. If a board becomes privy to a CEO’s misconduct and simply hopes it will fade away, it won’t. Employees in the know will report the situation on social media or leak it to traditional media. “It comes down to the board,” Kasnet says. He once served on a board of directors whose CEO’s judgment was overridden by his “ego-driven self-aggrandizement,” he says. “When we realized this, we made a change. Was it tough to do? Sure, but it was the right thing to do.”

Says Hooda: “The board has a fiduciary responsibility for the organization’s culture, reputation and long-term financial performance — all of which rest upon the CEO’s ethics and integrity as the culture champion of the organization. No CEO is irreplaceable.” To underline this fact, she suggests an organization should always have a succession plan in place for the person’s immediate replacement if need dictates.

Another way to tame a CEO’s animal brain is money. “For years, boards were concerned that clawback policies, by not having clearly defined terms, would lead to litigation and other legal implications,” Keatinge says. “That’s changing, with more progressive companies retaining outside counsel to create clawback provisions that won’t cause legal troubles down the line.”

Depending on the violation, the CEO could retain a role in the organization in return for forfeiting part or all of his or her incentive-based compensation. In cases of serious offenses, the executive could be pink-slipped along with the monetary forfeiture.

“If the CEO is going the wrong way, then put a leash on the CEO—sooner than later,” says Kasnet. “Too often the board waits until the eleventh hour, and by then it’s too late.”

Stillwell agrees. “There is no return on investment worth CEO misconduct,” he says. “Not just shareholders suffer the bad behavior—an extended ecosystem of employees, customers, business partners, suppliers, vendors, and communities also suffers.”

Boards of directors also have to be careful of the context in which they let executives go. Sexual harassment allegations by six women against Moonves led to his resignation in September. CBS is now on the hot seat for the former CEO’s severance package — a whopping $184 million exit payout, unless it is determined he was “fired for cause.” Two independent investigations are underway to figure out whether the allegations legally provide the means to give Moonves nothing.

Were he to receive the full amount, it could cause a public backlash against CBS. “Amply rewarding a guy who has been fired for the sexual harassment and intimidation of women will not sit well with many people,” says Keatinge from Glass Lewis. “What kind of message does that send to employees in the organization? How can they feel respected, appreciated, and safe in knowing their allegations matter?”

Likewise, Sergey Brin, president of Google’s parent company Alphabet, reportedly gave a “hero’s farewell” and a $90 million severance package to Andy Rubin, creator of the company’s Android operating system, upon the latter’s resignation in 2014. What was not revealed at the time was why Rubin resigned — he’d been accused of coercing another employee into a sexual act. According to The New York Times, Rubin is one of three former Google executives accused of sexual misconduct who received substantial exit packages, all shielded by the company.

Who in an organization can prevent such blatant errors in judgment? While boards of directors play a critical role in taming CEOs’ behavior, there may be a role for the CFO as well.

“My fiduciary responsibility as the CFO of a public company is to protect shareholders,” says Stillwell. “In certain states, this responsibility extends to other stakeholders like vendors and suppliers. That’s my job, but I’m also a human being. I would never abide behavior I consider intolerable. Would I bring evidence of a CEO’s sexual harassment of an employee to the board? In a heartbeat.”

But Stillwell hopes that day will never come. “Great business leaders understand that the company is much more than themselves,” he says. “They know there are many livelihoods depending on them to do the right thing.”


Out of Office

Workers’ off-duty acts may be protected by state laws.

In this hyperpolitical, tense social climate, it’s not just CEOs whose actions are under a microscope. Many workers, professional and otherwise, have been caught on a smartphone camera outisde of work behaving, shall we say, shamefully. Others have been dismissed after posting inexcusable offensive comments on social media. In the world of at-will employment, companies often don’t hesitate to let workers go. But in some states, there are specific off-duty behaviors for which you can’t fire someone. The following are some examples.

Arizona — Employers may not threaten or intimidate employees in ways that would influence political opinions, views, or actions; enclose written or printed political propaganda in pay envelopes; or post political notices or threats should a particular candidate be elected.

Connecticut — Employers may not subject an employee to discipline or termination based on his or her exercise of First Amendment rights. However, an employer may discipline an employee if the exercise of those rights interferes with job performance or the working relationship between the employee and employer.

Colorado — Political activities and some off-duty behaviors protected. Employees can’t be prevented from participating in politics, running for public office, or being elected to public office. Nor can they be terminated for engaging in lawful activities during nonworking hours, unless the behavior is “rationally related to a particular employee’s responsibilities or is necessary to avoid a conflict of interest.”

Massachusetts — Employers may not threaten or attempt to influence an employee to vote or to withhold a vote. They also may not threaten or attempt to influence an employee to give or withhold a political contribution.

New Jersey — Employers may not terminate an employee or take any adverse action against any employee based on smoking or use of other tobacco products. May do so “if the employer has a rational basis for action that is reasonably related to employment, including the current or prospective employee’s responsibilities.”

New York — Protects political activities, recreational activities, union activities, and legal use of consumable products outside of working hours and off of the employer’s premises. Off-duty activities can be restricted if they create a material conflict of interest related to the business.


Russ Banham is a Pulitzer-nominated financial journalist and best-selling author.

5 Roles AI Will Play In The Corporate Governance Of Tomorrow

By Russ Banham

Forbes.com

Corporate governance is in the crosshairs, with institutional investors broadcasting their concerns over the financial impact on companies of such social issues as the #MeToo movement, climate change, diversity and inclusion, and board gender composition.

Businesses with all-male boards, for instance, are now perceived as sending a message of gender inequity, while those whose CEOs or board members deny the existence of climate change are increasingly viewed as misinformed. Among other things, these assessments can affect a company’s stock performance.

Cognizant of this possibility, institutional investors are sounding alarms. A June 2018 survey of 223 institutional investors by consulting firm Aon indicates that 68% have concerns over board gender diversity in their proxy voting. And a 2018 survey of 60 institutional investors by audit firm EY states that nearly 8 in 10 (79%) consider climate change to be a significant risk, with 48% commenting that enhanced reporting of climate risks is a high priority.

“People have the ability to exchange their opinions and ideas more freely and easily in this era of constant information availability and accessibility,” said Sapna Nagaraj, director of machine learning and data science at BlackLine, a publicly traded provider of financial and accounting software automation solutions. “This is leading society as a whole to become more socially aware and conscious of such issues as human rights, gender equality and climate change, insofar as how businesses view these subjects.”

What You Say Impacts What You Do

Nagaraj makes an excellent point. Most people have a social conscience and many feel some degree of pressure to express their opinions in their social media accounts—and that includes high-profile people such as business leaders and board members. When their followers and others become privy to these individuals’ opinions on different social issues, that knowledge can positively or negatively affect public perception of the company’s brand and products.

“Companies are being judged not just by their business profitability, but by their operating principles,” Nagaraj noted. “Brands will be labeled as being socially conscious or not, creating long-lasting implications for the organization’s profitability, recruitment and retention of skill sets, and survival.”

Some businesses may undeservedly incur these challenges, given the propagation of fake news. Others may be unaware of how the organization is being examined and rebranded, learning about it after the fact on LinkedIn or on anonymous employee-feedback sites such as Glassdoor and Indeed.

“Whereas companies previously controlled the projection of their social branding, this is now being driven externally,” Nagaraj explained. “Consequently, it is incumbent upon businesses to be aware of this unfolding narrative in its earliest iterations to regain control of their story.”

Recapturing The Narrative

AI can help speed up the capture and analysis of truly useful information, turning this data into knowledge that can be used to track and assess impact on corporate profitability. Here are five ways in which the use of AI and other technologies can help businesses in the quest to drive their own stories.

1. Know thyself.

Just as a researcher can discern the gender diversity of a workforce, or an environmental group can discover if a company creates environmental hazards or sells products with potentially harmful components, an organization can find ways to monitor its own performance in key areas.

“There are software applications that can analyze the safety of the ingredients in your products and access public information on the organization’s environmental footprint, such as the volume of fossil fuel it burns or trees it cuts down,” Nagaraj said.

2. Turn the tables.

While companies such as Glassdoor and Indeed provide an external forum for disgruntled or unfulfilled employees to express their dismay, companies can create internal space for employees to be heard. The HR department can pull together an AI or analytics team to survey employees about their levels of engagement and create algorithms to make sense of this information, nipping burgeoning workforce problems in the bud.

3. Get a better look.

Many companies are unaware of how their products, services and brands are being represented in social media. Now, thanks to a combination of object-image recognition software and deep learning technology, they can determine if their products are being viewed on social media, how many times and the related context.

Basically, an algorithm is created to find the image, calculate the number of people viewing it and discern these individuals’ impressions. Based on the findings, a business can take actions to reframe the context.

4. Get ahead of trends.

While the #MeToo movement ignited after allegations of sexual impropriety against Harvey Weinstein, inferences of where things were headed could have been gleaned well in advance. Certainly, Hollywood’s “casting couch” was not a new phenomenon, and accusations of sexual harassment in the technology industry were front-page news for years.

“AI can track the rate of emerging sociocultural trends and compare them to specific business outcomes,” said Nagaraj. “An algorithm can find interesting correlations—good, bad and otherwise.”

5. Be the first on the block.

Down the line, Nagaraj predicts, an organization along the lines of the Better Business Bureau will be developed to assess and rate a company’s social consciousness. This barometer will entail a simple score that defines a company’s position on different social issues, such as board composition, diversity and inclusion, and climate change.

“It’s only a matter of time before consumers, institutional investors and the stock market factor in a company’s social conscience when buying products or shares in a publicly traded company,” she said. “By creating a specialized AI and analytics team, businesses can create their own social consciousness rating, seizing the narrative before others tell it their way.”

All in all, there is ample evidence to indicate that more companies than ever before are being held accountable for their actions and workforce composition, as well as leaders’ social media statements. Deploying AI to optimize these factors will be integral to future corporate advances: In this age of flourishing social consciousness, corporate governance is no longer just about business.

Russ Banham is a Pulitzer-nominated financial journalist and author who writes frequently about the intersection of business and technology.

Hiring America’s Heroes: What Four Companies Are Doing To Hire Veterans

By Russ Banham

Chief Executive

Earlier this year, Chief Executive, in partnership with the Thayer Leader Development Group (TLDG) at West Point, launched our inaugural Patriots in Business Awards to honor the Best Companies with Veteran & Military Initiatives. The award recognizes outstanding businesses that lead our nation in supporting active duty military members, veterans and their families and exemplify the values of Duty, Honor and Country through their business practices and throughout their community and industry.

“Chief Executive and TLDG created this award to recognize the innovative and dedicated initiatives of companies big and small to support America’s veteran and military families,” says Marshall Cooper, CEO of Chief Executive Group. “In doing so, we hope to inspire more CEOs to improve or begin their own efforts.”

“The winners distinguished themselves by consistently improving their military support each year, and going beyond just focusing on hiring efforts,” notes Dan Rice, cofounder and president of TLDG. “Once a veteran or military spouse is hired, their support continued through mentoring, training, volunteerism, outreach, networking and more.”

Both organizations extend their thanks to the judges in this first Patriots in Business Awards: Nicholas Pinchuk, chairman and CEO of Snap-on Incorporated; Gen. Herbert J. “Hawk” Carlisle (ret.), president and CEO of National Defense Industrial Association; Michael Linnington, CEO of the Wounded Warrior Project; David Kim, founder and president of the Children of Fallen Patriots Foundation.

Large Enterprise: Comcast NBCUniversal

Led by retired U.S. Army Brigadier General Carol Eggert, Comcast NBCUniversal’s Military and Veteran Affairs team is a fully-staffed organization focused on recruiting, hiring and cultivating veteran and military spouse talent. The team pursues this mission via a holistic, end-to-end approach that ensures that its branding, community impact and partnership efforts on behalf of the military community are aligned across the business.

Key features of the company’s wide-ranging veteran programs include 15 days paid time off each year for active duty employees on deployment for military training, in addition to regular paid time off. The employees’ benefits continue without change, safeguarding their families’ financial protection.

Comcast supports a relocation assistance program for military spouses, guaranteeing them a job interview when transferring to a location within the company’s geographic footprint. Outside these areas, spouses are referred to recruiters from partner companies. A generous transition package also is provided. Comcast also supports the U.S. Chamber of Commerce’s “Hiring Our Heroes” corporate fellowship program, which provides service members the opportunity to gain corporate experiences before transitioning into the civilian sector. In 2015, the company committed to hiring 10,000 veterans, National Guard and Reserve members, and military spouses through the end of 2017. To get the word out about this ambitious hiring agenda, the company hosted an Employee Military Awareness Week each year, supported by a national communications effort. The hiring goal was met and exceeded. Since 2010, more than 15,000 members of the military community have joined its workforce. “We continue to hire and support this incredible community, as well as develop new partnerships to help us do so,” said Eggert.

Medium-Sized Business: Academy Securities

Founded by former U.S. Naval Officer and Naval Academy graduate Chance Mims, Academy Securities is the nation’s first and only post-9/11 disabled veteran-owned broker-dealer. More than half the ownership (58 percent) of Academy Services consists of military, combat and/or disabled veterans. Eighty percent of management ranks and 41 percent of employees also are veterans. All are encouraged to engage other veterans to apply for employment. The firm’s 2018 target for veterans as a percentage of total hires is 50 percent.

Academy Securities’ management team reviews all veteran employment applications. Many candidates are given training to take the FINRA Series 7 examination to become general securities representatives. After completing the program, they are eligible to become full-time hires. If job positions are unavailable, the firm assists applicants with interview preparation skills, internships and/or industry mentoring. It also encourages applicants to apply for jobs through its partner networks like the New York City Veterans Advisory Board, Veteran’s on Wall Street and the Veteran Mentor Network.

“We understand that the financial industry is first and foremost a service industry, but we also recognize the strength of military values and culture and continue to maintain them in our firm’s core values of teamwork, loyalty, and integrity,” says Mims, Academy Services’ CEO. “We want to be consistently recognized for our unwavering adherence to our core values and fellow veterans, as well as exceptional client service.”

America’s military veterans are some of the most skilled people on the planet, able to lead a project team through extraordinary challenges or deliver superior outcomes on mission-driven tasks. More than one million veterans will exit the U.S. Armed Forces over the next five years. This diverse talent pool has highly sought-after competencies, including discipline, flexibility, planning, technical, communications and problem-solving skills. And that’s the short list.

Yet, more than one million U.S. veterans remain unemployed, somehow slipping through the recruitment net. Research suggests companies struggle to access this talent pool, despite recognition of its potential. In a recent study by Chief Executive and the State of Indiana of nearly 300 U.S.-based CEOs, 57 percent reported that their company considered hiring veterans, yet only 17 percent had implemented a program to support those efforts.

The good news? A growing number of U.S. companies are creating initiatives to more closely align military training experiences with employment openings and business needs. And the efforts are paying off. “Veterans are disciplined and accountable; they take ownership of their work, are very proactive in finding solutions to varied challenges, and don’t make excuses,” says Larry Hughes, vice president of training and diversity at 7-Eleven and a former Army officer who commanded two company units as a field artillery officer during his five-year service. “They also have advanced technical training and strong cross-cultural experiences. And they’re team builders who know how to resolve conflicts, motivate people and get the best out of them.”

On the pages that follow, we share some practical tips from companies and CEOs making a difference in the lives of veterans—while also making the most of a great opportunity.

Getting Started

Kevin Ryan founded the Service Brewing Company, a small brewery with a taproom in Savanna, Georgia, in 2014. Of the company’s 24 investors, 20 are veterans; and the majority of its 13 employees are also veterans. One is currently deployed in the National Guard and another is a former military spouse. “We’re always looking for veterans to add to our team,” says Ryan, a 1996 West Point graduate who subsequently served as an Army infantry officer.

In recruiting, Ryan aligned with two local military bases (Ft. Stewart and Hunter AAF) and Georgia Tech’s Veteran Education Program. He also reaches out to student veterans at Georgia Southern, as well as at the Association of the U.S. Army, the Military Officers Association of America, the Mighty Eighth Air Force Museum and many other organizations. “Soldiers don’t often get to go to job fairs or have the ability to network successfully, so we need to get out in front of them,” he says.

Other companies employ a similar strategy. At 7-Eleven, field personnel nurture close relationships with military base transition office staff members. “We advise on-base soldiers on resumé building and job interview tactics, host entrepreneurial boot camps and invite exiting service members to attend our seminars on franchising opportunities,” says Hughes. “We’re also a regular presence at military hiring fairs.”

The company has hired more than 300 veterans and military spouses as field consultants in the past year, tripling the number of these hires since 2014. The position is a gateway to other jobs in the organization.

Companies interested in hiring military veterans and spouses can draw on a wealth of resources geared toward assisting veterans. Local Veteran Service Organizations, Student Veterans of America chapters at colleges and universities and web sites like Hero 2 Hired, Veterans Job Bank or Vetsuccess.gov are all great ways of proactively recruiting ex-military men and women. Companies can also seek out career fairs focused on veteran recruitment and programs like Google’s “Jobs for Veterans” initiative.

Once hired, veterans and military spouses are given the special treatment they need and deserve to make the best of their talents. La Quintawelcomes military hires with a special veteran or military spouse pin for them to wear on their uniforms or business attire. Through the hotel’s guest loyalty program, five million points were donated to several veteran-focused organizations like Operation Homefront and Armed Services YMCA. “Putting people first is embedded in our culture, and those who have a passion for people and service fall in line with these core values,” says Derek Blake, La Quinta vice president of marketing and military programs.

Starbucks provides veterans with a unique benefit—to gift their Starbucks College Achievement Plan to a child or spouse. The program funds tuition for an online bachelor’s degree at Arizona State University in 150 various degree programs. Starbucks also offers veteran-employees what are called Military Mondays, a program developed with the William and Mary Law School to provide free legal counseling to service members at its stores. “Military Mondays is now scaling nationally and growing to include other critical services such as financial literacy training and investment counseling,” says Christopher Miller, Starbucks veterans and military affairs manager.

 Citi, in partnership with Bring Them Homes, has been instrumental in providing transitional, supportive, temporary, and permanent housing for veterans and their families. “To date, the program has supported the creation of more than 3,500 affordable housing units,” says Ruth Christopherson, a Citi senior vice president and retired colonel, U.S. Air National Guard.

Matching Skills

7-Eleven, which joined other U.S. companies in a 2012 pledge to hire one million veterans by 2020, is well on its way toward achieving the goal. The company has hired more than 300 veterans and military spouses in the past four years alone. To align the resumes of veterans with needed business skill sets, the company has created a presentation called “Military 101” that translates military assignments into corresponding business tasks.

“It ensures our recruiting team has a firm understanding of how military experiences and skill sets translate into roles within our team, and enables our transitioning veterans to be set up for success,” says Dave Strachan, chief of staff and a former Army officer. 7-Eleven CEO Joseph DePinto also is a former Army field artillery officer and West Point graduate.

Other companies tout the extraordinary range of abilities that soldiers attain over their own military careers. “People don’t think of veterans as having finance, operations, HR, IT or project management skills in a business context,” says retired U.S. Army Brigadier General Carol Eggert, a recipient of the Legion of Merit, a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart and head of Comcast NBCUniversal’s eight-person Military and Veteran Affairs organization (see sidebar). She says that misconception is fueled by a lack of understanding of the breadth and scope of leadership positions in the military.

Many companies are doing just that, creating an array of programs designed to match military community skill sets with business needs.For example, Citi, cofounder of the Veterans on Wall Street recruitment initiative and corporate sponsor of Military.com’s mobile app, launched Citi Salutes to centralize its 17 military veteran employee networks under the oversight of an executive steering committee. The firm also created a Veterans Recruiting Toolbox for recruiters.

Dow Chemical implemented a program where four or more years of military service meet the company’s minimum job requirements. The company also is running a pilot Military Engagement Program, in which a current employee-veteran coaches service members and military spouses through its hiring process.

Many companies, including 7-Eleven, Starbucks and Comcast, are corporate partners in the Hiring Our Heroes fellowship program. The 12-week operations management internship is designed to provide the skills needed to succeed in the civilian workforce. “We make an offer of employment to fellows who complete the program,” says Strachan, citing 7-Eleven’s recent hiring of a dozen graduates.

Smoothing Transitions

For many veterans, their first job in the private sector can be dislocating. The management structure is different, the vocabulary of business is arcane and the processes are atypical. Easing the transition of this talented group of employees improves the chances of retaining them. A 2016 survey by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation found that 44 percent of veterans left their first post-military job within a year.

Job vacancies at the Black Knight, a fast-growing company of 5,000 employees, are being filled with veterans at a 10 percent rate. For good reasons, too, since the company pledges full-wage continuation and medical and dental benefits to employees called up for active duty in the Reserves or National Guard. Returning employees are placed in the same position, or another position they might have attained had they remained continuously employed. “We’re ensuring their career paths remain productive and promising,” Circelli says. “You need to make hiring veterans a priority and then have the dedication to fulfill that commitment.”

At construction giant. Cushman and Wakefield, a military transition roadmap helops veterans acclimate to the corporate environment. Deloittesponsors the Career Opportunity Redefinition and Exploration Leadership Program, helping veterans and active duty service members identify their unique strengths to better direct their careers. Every Deloitte business has a partner, principal or managing director as a Champion for Military and Veterans. GE partnered with the U.S. Army Reserve Medical Command in a pioneering externship program providing eight months of biomed and imaging training to Army Reserve biomedical technicians.

Another Opportunity

According to research compiled by Blue Star Families (BSF), 43 percent of military spouses are unemployed, compared to 25.5 percent of civilian spouses. Eggert suggests employers shun this talent pool for outdated reasons. “Employers know they often need to relocate,” Eggert explains. “This makes no sense in an era where Millennials are job-hopping every three or four years.” Comcast not only proactively recruits military spouses, but also helps those forced to relocate find jobs elsewhere in the organization or with other employers through its partnerships with different veterans coalitions.

Booz Allen Hamilton welcomes military spouse employees with personal emails from other military spouses at the vice president level and has developed a specialized handbook for their use. And Starbucks is a member of the Defense Department’s Military Spouse Employment Partnership program, composed of more than 360 employers vetted and recognized by the Defense Department as portable career options.

Certainly, companies looking for skilled, hard-working and motivated employees would benefit from giving more thought and effort to hiring veterans and military spouses. “Every branch of service espouses specific core values like loyalty, dedication, respect and integrity,” says Eggert. “Military personnel live by these values, forging people with remarkable character, self-reliance, tenacity to get the job done and leadership.”

Service Brewing’s Kevin Ryan is certainly happy he’s hired so many vets. “One of the first things the military teaches you is to take orders—you’re given a task and you do it,” says Ryan. “Working in a brewery is a physically demanding job. You’re pulling and pushing and shoveling all day long, and then putting on your best face to pour a draft for a customer. I’ve never heard a single complaint.”

Russ Banham is a Pulitzer-nominated financial journalist and best-selling author.

Industry 2050: How Clean Manufacturing Is A Win-Win Proposition

By Russ Banham

Forbes

Now that more companies are realizing the financial and environmental benefits of investing in production methods and technologies that take the dirty work out of making stuff, clean manufacturing is no longer an oxymoron.

An industry that has long been an ecological disappointment is poised to become an exemplar of eco-friendly practices, creating products the negative environmental impacts of which have been significantly reduced. While this shift toward sustainable practices is great news for people and the planet, it’s also a boon for companies’ bottom lines – reducing expenses, maximizing profits and boosting reputations to generate more sales.

The overarching goal of clean manufacturing is to make things using economically sound processes that minimize negative environmental consequences while conserving energy and natural resources. In pursuit of this objective, an increasing number of manufacturers have implemented a wide range of initiatives that minimize waste, energy usage and harmful emissions; improve manufacturing efficiencies and output; embrace Internet-enabled automated technologies; and involve the use of less harmful and more economical composite materials.

This momentum contrasts sharply with practices in the early 2000s, when pioneering companies embracing green initiatives were few and far between. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, what once was a “small niche” now includes many major manufacturers that are “building long-term business viability and success” from their clean manufacturing programs.

Clean And Smart Manufacturing

While the positive experiences of these larger companies demonstrate that environmental improvements and profit-making go hand-in-hand, most midsize and smaller manufacturers across the world have yet to seize upon such opportunities.

“They may be struggling with their short-term survival, or cost pressure from clients, or lack of knowledge and resources to invest in environmental improvement,” stated Andrew Wyckoff, director of the Science, Technology and Industry Directorate at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Overcoming such struggles may well be worth it. A dollar invested two decades ago in a select portfolio of public companies focused exclusively on growing their businesses would be worth about $14 today, according to a study by the Harvard Business School. But if that dollar had instead been invested in a portfolio of companies that focused on important environmental and social issues – along with growing their businesses – it would now be worth more than $28.

What explains such outsized gains? The latter companies focused on sustainable measures that trimmed manufacturing costs and improved equipment efficiency, which benefited both the environment and the bottom line. In other words, by doing good, these businesses also did well.

Such measures can be attributed in part to so-called smart manufacturing. Machines that are embedded with Internet-enabled semiconductors and sensors can report on looming maintenance needs. And by integrating lessons that the sensor-outputted data from equipment on the factory floor have to teach, products can be manufactured to customer demand, thereby limiting energy usage, production excess and inventory warehousing costs.

Leaner methods of production are also being attained through the increasing use of robotics, 3D printing of parts and engineered composite materials that present the means to make stronger, more durable, lighter-weight products with unique properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity. Composite materials have at least two constituent parts, being typically blends of different types of resins, polymers, ceramics and natural fibers. The end result is a product that uses less metal, reducing the environmental degradation caused by mining.

Burnishing The Brand 

These various activities also have significant reputational value. A report by McKinsey & Company notes that environmental sustainability is now a strategic and integral part of many businesses, given its positive effect on corporate reputation. A Nielsen study of 30,000 consumers across the world indicates that 73 percent of Millennials are willing to pay extra for sustainable goods.

“Consumer brands that haven’t embraced sustainability are at risk on many fronts,” warned Carol Gstalder, Nielsen’s senior vice president of reputation and public relations solutions. “Social responsibility is a critical part of proactive reputation management. And companies with strong reputations outperform others when it comes to attracting top talent, investors, community partners and, importantly, consumers.”

Added up, the economic and eco-friendly benefits of sustainable manufacturing are compelling. By engaging in sustainable manufacturing, companies may also be eligible to receive government tax credits, grants and other incentives at the federal and state level. The reason for this largesse is the economic payback: The National Association of Manufacturers found that for every dollar spent in manufacturing, another $1.89 accrues to U.S. gross domestic product (GDP).

Unfortunately, approximately 31 percent of companies are unaware that such government incentives even exist.

The Next Industrial Revolution

Certainly, many midsize and smaller companies need to first understand that there is demonstrable business value in sustainable practices. The challenge, in Wyckoff’s view, is that these manufacturers “simply do not know where to start.”

To flatten this learning curve, the OECD has created a sustainable manufacturing toolkit for use by businesses of all sizes and types. The toolkit offers technical advice and best practices, in addition to measurement methods for calculating the return on an investment.

Sustainable improvements in manufacturing really have no downside. Consumers want products that are good for them and for the planet. In the decades to come, such products will be an increasingly possible, profitable reality. The great hope is that clean manufacturing will become a business-as-usual practice across industry – to the benefit of companies and the world at large.

Russ Banham is a Los Angeles-based financial journalist and author.